:: On the Decompositions of Intervals and Simple Closed Curves
::
:: Copyright (c) 2002-2017 Association of Mizar Users

registration
cluster being_simple_closed_curve -> non trivial for Element of bool the carrier of ();
coherence
for b1 being Simple_closed_curve holds not b1 is trivial
proof end;
end;

theorem :: BORSUK_4:1
canceled;

theorem :: BORSUK_4:2
canceled;

theorem :: BORSUK_4:3
canceled;

::\$CT 3
theorem Th1: :: BORSUK_4:4
for f, g being Function
for a being set st f is one-to-one & g is one-to-one & (dom f) /\ (dom g) = {a} & (rng f) /\ (rng g) = {(f . a)} holds
f +* g is one-to-one
proof end;

theorem Th2: :: BORSUK_4:5
for f, g being Function
for a being set st f is one-to-one & g is one-to-one & (dom f) /\ (dom g) = {a} & (rng f) /\ (rng g) = {(f . a)} & f . a = g . a holds
(f +* g) " = (f ") +* (g ")
proof end;

theorem Th3: :: BORSUK_4:6
for n being Element of NAT
for A being Subset of ()
for p, q being Point of () st A is_an_arc_of p,q holds
not A \ {p} is empty
proof end;

theorem :: BORSUK_4:7
for s1, s3, s4, l being Real st s1 <= s3 & s1 < s4 & 0 <= l & l <= 1 holds
s1 <= ((1 - l) * s3) + (l * s4)
proof end;

theorem Th5: :: BORSUK_4:8
for A being Subset of I[01]
for a, b being Real st a < b & A = ].a,b.[ holds
[.a,b.] c= the carrier of I[01]
proof end;

theorem Th6: :: BORSUK_4:9
for A being Subset of I[01]
for a, b being Real st a < b & A = ].a,b.] holds
[.a,b.] c= the carrier of I[01]
proof end;

theorem Th7: :: BORSUK_4:10
for A being Subset of I[01]
for a, b being Real st a < b & A = [.a,b.[ holds
[.a,b.] c= the carrier of I[01]
proof end;

theorem Th8: :: BORSUK_4:11
for a, b being Real st a <> b holds
Cl ].a,b.] = [.a,b.]
proof end;

theorem Th9: :: BORSUK_4:12
for a, b being Real st a <> b holds
Cl [.a,b.[ = [.a,b.]
proof end;

theorem :: BORSUK_4:13
for A being Subset of I[01]
for a, b being Real st a < b & A = ].a,b.[ holds
Cl A = [.a,b.]
proof end;

theorem Th11: :: BORSUK_4:14
for A being Subset of I[01]
for a, b being Real st a < b & A = ].a,b.] holds
Cl A = [.a,b.]
proof end;

theorem Th12: :: BORSUK_4:15
for A being Subset of I[01]
for a, b being Real st a < b & A = [.a,b.[ holds
Cl A = [.a,b.]
proof end;

theorem Th13: :: BORSUK_4:16
for A being Subset of I[01]
for a, b being Real st a <= b & A = [.a,b.] holds
( 0 <= a & b <= 1 )
proof end;

theorem Th14: :: BORSUK_4:17
for A, B being Subset of I[01]
for a, b, c being Real st a < b & b < c & A = [.a,b.[ & B = ].b,c.] holds
A,B are_separated
proof end;

theorem :: BORSUK_4:18
for p1, p2 being Point of I[01] holds [.p1,p2.] is Subset of I[01] by ;

theorem Th16: :: BORSUK_4:19
for a, b being Point of I[01] holds ].a,b.[ is Subset of I[01]
proof end;

theorem :: BORSUK_4:20
for p being Real holds {p} is non empty closed_interval Subset of REAL
proof end;

theorem Th18: :: BORSUK_4:21
for A being non empty connected Subset of I[01]
for a, b, c being Point of I[01] st a <= b & b <= c & a in A & c in A holds
b in A
proof end;

theorem Th19: :: BORSUK_4:22
for A being non empty connected Subset of I[01]
for a, b being Real st a in A & b in A holds
[.a,b.] c= A
proof end;

theorem Th20: :: BORSUK_4:23
for a, b being Real
for A being Subset of I[01] st A = [.a,b.] holds
A is closed
proof end;

theorem Th21: :: BORSUK_4:24
for p1, p2 being Point of I[01] st p1 <= p2 holds
[.p1,p2.] is non empty connected compact Subset of I[01]
proof end;

theorem Th22: :: BORSUK_4:25
for X being Subset of I[01]
for X9 being Subset of REAL st X9 = X holds
( X9 is bounded_above & X9 is bounded_below )
proof end;

theorem Th23: :: BORSUK_4:26
for X being Subset of I[01]
for X9 being Subset of REAL
for x being Real st x in X9 & X9 = X holds
( lower_bound X9 <= x & x <= upper_bound X9 )
proof end;

Lm1:
by ;

theorem Th24: :: BORSUK_4:27
for A being Subset of REAL
for B being Subset of I[01] st A = B holds
( A is closed iff B is closed )
proof end;

theorem Th25: :: BORSUK_4:28
for C being non empty closed_interval Subset of REAL holds lower_bound C <= upper_bound C
proof end;

theorem Th26: :: BORSUK_4:29
for C being non empty connected compact Subset of I[01]
for C9 being Subset of REAL st C = C9 & [.(),().] c= C9 holds
[.(),().] = C9
proof end;

theorem Th27: :: BORSUK_4:30
for C being non empty connected compact Subset of I[01] holds C is non empty closed_interval Subset of REAL
proof end;

theorem Th28: :: BORSUK_4:31
for C being non empty connected compact Subset of I[01] ex p1, p2 being Point of I[01] st
( p1 <= p2 & C = [.p1,p2.] )
proof end;

definition
func I(01) -> strict SubSpace of I[01] means :Def1: :: BORSUK_4:def 1
the carrier of it = ].0,1.[;
existence
ex b1 being strict SubSpace of I[01] st the carrier of b1 = ].0,1.[
proof end;
uniqueness
for b1, b2 being strict SubSpace of I[01] st the carrier of b1 = ].0,1.[ & the carrier of b2 = ].0,1.[ holds
b1 = b2
by TSEP_1:5;
end;

:: deftheorem Def1 defines I(01) BORSUK_4:def 1 :
for b1 being strict SubSpace of I[01] holds
( b1 = I(01) iff the carrier of b1 = ].0,1.[ );

registration
cluster I(01) -> non empty strict ;
coherence
not I(01) is empty
proof end;
end;

theorem :: BORSUK_4:32
for A being Subset of I[01] st A = the carrier of I(01) holds
I(01) = I[01] | A by ;

theorem Th30: :: BORSUK_4:33
the carrier of I(01) = the carrier of I[01] \ {0,1}
proof end;

registration
coherence by ;
end;

theorem :: BORSUK_4:34
I(01) is open ;

theorem Th32: :: BORSUK_4:35
for r being Real holds
( r in the carrier of I(01) iff ( 0 < r & r < 1 ) )
proof end;

theorem Th33: :: BORSUK_4:36
for a, b being Point of I[01] st a < b & b <> 1 holds
].a,b.] is non empty Subset of I(01)
proof end;

theorem Th34: :: BORSUK_4:37
for a, b being Point of I[01] st a < b & a <> 0 holds
[.a,b.[ is non empty Subset of I(01)
proof end;

theorem :: BORSUK_4:38
for D being Simple_closed_curve holds () | R^2-unit_square,() | D are_homeomorphic
proof end;

theorem :: BORSUK_4:39
for n being Element of NAT
for D being non empty Subset of ()
for p1, p2 being Point of () st D is_an_arc_of p1,p2 holds
I(01) ,() | (D \ {p1,p2}) are_homeomorphic
proof end;

theorem Th37: :: BORSUK_4:40
for n being Element of NAT
for D being Subset of ()
for p1, p2 being Point of () st D is_an_arc_of p1,p2 holds
I[01] ,() | D are_homeomorphic
proof end;

theorem :: BORSUK_4:41
for n being Element of NAT
for p1, p2 being Point of () st p1 <> p2 holds
I[01] ,() | (LSeg (p1,p2)) are_homeomorphic by ;

theorem Th39: :: BORSUK_4:42
for E being Subset of I(01) st ex p1, p2 being Point of I[01] st
( p1 < p2 & E = [.p1,p2.] ) holds
I[01] ,I(01) | E are_homeomorphic
proof end;

theorem Th40: :: BORSUK_4:43
for n being Element of NAT
for A being Subset of ()
for p, q being Point of ()
for a, b being Point of I[01] st A is_an_arc_of p,q & a < b holds
ex E being non empty Subset of I[01] ex f being Function of (),(() | A) st
( E = [.a,b.] & f is being_homeomorphism & f . a = p & f . b = q )
proof end;

theorem Th41: :: BORSUK_4:44
for A being TopSpace
for B being non empty TopSpace
for f being Function of A,B
for C being TopSpace
for X being Subset of A st f is continuous & C is SubSpace of B holds
for h being Function of (A | X),C st h = f | X holds
h is continuous
proof end;

theorem Th42: :: BORSUK_4:45
for X being Subset of I[01]
for a, b being Point of I[01] st X = ].a,b.[ holds
X is open
proof end;

theorem Th43: :: BORSUK_4:46
for X being Subset of I(01)
for a, b being Point of I[01] st X = ].a,b.[ holds
X is open
proof end;

theorem Th44: :: BORSUK_4:47
for X being Subset of I(01)
for a being Point of I[01] st X = ].0,a.] holds
X is closed
proof end;

theorem Th45: :: BORSUK_4:48
for X being Subset of I(01)
for a being Point of I[01] st X = [.a,1.[ holds
X is closed
proof end;

theorem Th46: :: BORSUK_4:49
for n being Element of NAT
for A being Subset of ()
for p, q being Point of ()
for a, b being Point of I[01] st A is_an_arc_of p,q & a < b & b <> 1 holds
ex E being non empty Subset of I(01) ex f being Function of (),(() | (A \ {p})) st
( E = ].a,b.] & f is being_homeomorphism & f . b = q )
proof end;

theorem Th47: :: BORSUK_4:50
for n being Element of NAT
for A being Subset of ()
for p, q being Point of ()
for a, b being Point of I[01] st A is_an_arc_of p,q & a < b & a <> 0 holds
ex E being non empty Subset of I(01) ex f being Function of (),(() | (A \ {q})) st
( E = [.a,b.[ & f is being_homeomorphism & f . a = p )
proof end;

theorem Th48: :: BORSUK_4:51
for n being Element of NAT
for A, B being Subset of ()
for p, q being Point of () st A is_an_arc_of p,q & B is_an_arc_of q,p & A /\ B = {p,q} & p <> q holds
I(01) ,() | ((A \ {p}) \/ (B \ {p})) are_homeomorphic
proof end;

theorem Th49: :: BORSUK_4:52
for D being Simple_closed_curve
for p being Point of () st p in D holds
() | (D \ {p}), I(01) are_homeomorphic
proof end;

theorem :: BORSUK_4:53
for D being Simple_closed_curve
for p, q being Point of () st p in D & q in D holds
() | (D \ {p}),() | (D \ {q}) are_homeomorphic
proof end;

theorem Th51: :: BORSUK_4:54
for n being Element of NAT
for C being non empty Subset of ()
for E being Subset of I(01) st ex p1, p2 being Point of I[01] st
( p1 < p2 & E = [.p1,p2.] ) & I(01) | E,() | C are_homeomorphic holds
ex s1, s2 being Point of () st C is_an_arc_of s1,s2
proof end;

theorem Th52: :: BORSUK_4:55
for Dp being non empty Subset of ()
for f being Function of (() | Dp),I(01)
for C being non empty Subset of () st f is being_homeomorphism & C c= Dp & ex p1, p2 being Point of I[01] st
( p1 < p2 & f .: C = [.p1,p2.] ) holds
ex s1, s2 being Point of () st C is_an_arc_of s1,s2
proof end;

theorem :: BORSUK_4:56
for D being Simple_closed_curve
for C being non empty connected compact Subset of () holds
( not C c= D or C = D or ex p1, p2 being Point of () st C is_an_arc_of p1,p2 or ex p being Point of () st C = {p} )
proof end;

theorem Th54: :: BORSUK_4:57
for C being non empty compact Subset of I[01] st C c= ].0,1.[ holds
ex D being non empty closed_interval Subset of REAL st
( C c= D & D c= ].0,1.[ & lower_bound C = lower_bound D & upper_bound C = upper_bound D )
proof end;

theorem Th55: :: BORSUK_4:58
for C being non empty compact Subset of I[01] st C c= ].0,1.[ holds
ex p1, p2 being Point of I[01] st
( p1 <= p2 & C c= [.p1,p2.] & [.p1,p2.] c= ].0,1.[ )
proof end;

theorem :: BORSUK_4:59
for D being Simple_closed_curve
for C being closed Subset of () st C c< D holds
ex p1, p2 being Point of () ex B being Subset of () st
( B is_an_arc_of p1,p2 & C c= B & B c= D )
proof end;